This is a new column where readers are encouraged to ask questions about birds-in-general, back yard birds/birding, bird feeding, bird health, bird banding, bird migration, bird ecology etc.
So, let’s get started with some questions.
Question: Two woodpeckers are coming to back-yard suet feeders during the winter that appear to be identical except for size. Are they the same bird?
Answer: Short answer is “no” these woodpeckers are not the same bird. There are subtle differences that make the Downy & Hairy Woodpecker unique and therefore separate species. As noted the size is apparent. The Downy is about the size of a House Sparrow (6.25 in. or 15.6 cm) while the Hairy Woodpecker (9.50 in. or 23.6 cm) is as big as our American Robin. Here on Six Nations as with most Reserves in Ontario, the Hairy Woodpecker is a common occurrence due to our undisturbed large areas of woodlands. In non-native suburbia, this stunning woodpecker is rare; its requirements are more to the liking of our lands. The Downy Woodpecker is the ubiquitous woodpecker of N. America. Our smallest drummer has adapted to the suburbs & every place in-between. Other notable differences for these woodpeckers:
- The Hairy has a bill nearly the size of its head & is chisel-like while the smaller Downy has a pointy bill about a third of the size of its head
- The outer tail feathers of the Hairy are white while the Downy is white with black spots
- Drumming of the Hairy is fast & buzzing about 25 taps per second & the pause between drums can be 20 seconds. The Downy is about 15 taps per second and pauses are just a few seconds between each drum.
Watch as each bird flies away from the feeder. The Hairy takes long more powerful, undulating wing beats with stronger purposeful dips.
Question: How do our winter birds survive each winter?
Answer: Adaptation, feathers, feathers & more feathers.
Our winter denizens have adapted throughout the centuries as do all species of birds. Let’s look at Black-capped Chickadees, Nuthatches and Downy Woodpeckers. These birds are similar in many ways. Each species has short, pointy bills that gives them considerable leverage in pounding bark on trees with the intention of finding grubs & insects hidden within. These inhabitants all have very thick legs and long thick toes with sharp claws which allow them to cling & grip areas of trees that other birds cannot. Acrobats they are! Also, something unique to these devils of delight are their brains. Yes, their brains. These three species have an enlarged hippocampus which is a specific portion of their brain that is primarily associated with spatial navigation and memory. These “brainiacs” can remember where they hide their stash. The name to this compulsive behavior is to cashe. Cashing is the ability to store food and retrieve it at a later date.
Feathers are amazing. For many years now, I have been taking extreme close-ups of a birds feathers prior to release after the banding process. The average songbird has approximately 3,000 feathers. Feathers are very cool adaptions & yes plumage keep birds cool in hot weather but also store heat during subzero temperatures throughout prolonged winters. How? The layers & different texture of feathers (down being the most desirable) enable each bird to maintain a constant body temperature by trapping air. Feathers have both the unique combination of strength & lightness. Birds manipulate their feathers & preening is a process that not only adjusts feather placement but creates a waterproof barrier. The preen gland is located at the base of the tail & the bird will spread this oily substance with their bill throughout their feathers.
(Slide mouse over image to see name of bird. Click on image to view larger version.)
Question: Seeing lots of bird movement. What is migration?
Answer: Migration is the regular seasonal movement of birds for mating and food availability. Migration generally takes place in the spring and then again in the fall. Not only birds migrate but many species throughout the world spectrum migrate including but not limited to; whales, Monarch Butterflies, salmon, zebra, wildebeests and caribou.
There are more than 2,000 species of birds in North America while about 350 are considered long distance migrators. Songbirds such as warblers, flycatchers, vireos, orioles and sparrows are currently migrating south. These songbirds which are primarily insectivores need protein for themselves and during nesting. As the climate becomes colder so does the availability of insects. Migration therefore becomes a necessity.
How do birds know when to migrate? Daylight plays an integral part in this decision. Once days start to shorten, the brain triggers the endocrine system which cause hormonal changes. Both adult and fledglings molt their feathers. Fresh, stronger feathers are replaced and they begin to build-up fat deposits. Each species has a different time frame when these transitions take place.
Migration by songbirds for the most part occurs at night. This way it gives the birds an opportunity to rest and feed during daylight hours. Interestingly, with the technology of Doppler Radar and other similar weather tracking devices, large flocks of bird species migrating during the night can be seen on track.
Keep looking up.
(Slide mouse over image to see name of bird. Click on image to view larger version.)
Question: Where have my hummingbirds gone?
Answer: There are certain questions we expect to hear every year and this is one of them. If your hummingbird feeders are close to your house such as hanging from an s-hook on your porch,
under your eves, suctioned to your kitchen window or visible from your path to your car on a long 5-foot shepherds hook you notice things. You notice as they squawk, fight, whip past your ears as they make silly incredible acrobatic moves that make you laugh out loud. You notice when the activity stops. You really, really do notice. We do, too.
From the very beginning of the arrival of your Ruby-throated Hummingbirds in April and May, the dinner bell has rung and the red-rockets keep coming. The big ruckus in April-June has leveled. The playing field is more sedate for the females because nesting becomes a priority. The males are still their randy selves and the only two objectives while maintaining their summer territory is to chase away other males while attempting to mate with as many females as possible. The
males weight drops because he has no time to seek out much in the way of protein sources. He has a spot in a tree close to the feeders where he hides in wait before he dive-bombs any other male and all females.
Whatever you do, don’t panic. The females are sitting on their eggs & soon will have to feed two ravenous newbies. They are solely responsible for finding a suitable nest site, building the nest, sitting on the eggs & feeding both herself & the two nestlings. These dedicated moms will spend more time looking for small soft-bodied insects in many of the tube shaped flowers within their territory and catching tiny insects on the fly. Native Territories are a wonderful habitat for hummingbirds with an irresistible amount of tree leaves for gleaning, tree bark nooks and crannies & wild flowers to explore. Oh those wild flowers. A whopping two thirds of a hummingbird’s diet consists of protein. Protein is vital to her diet and the nestlings. The sugar water then becomes a quick energy source for her sustainability while seeking nutrient rich proteins for long term survival. She no longer dawdles at the feeders. Her instinct is to get back to her nest.
In August, peace & tranquility comes to your hummingbird feeders to a certain extent. I often describe this time of year as motivational chaos. All of the hummingbirds are bulking up. There is a sense of urgency and their objectives are identical. The adult males’ metabolism changes in preparation for the journey south. They begin to put on weight and are not so much interested in the females. The females have each fledged 1-2 young & the increase of activity at feeders is notable. The migration of hummingbirds from farther north also begins to trickle down to our reserves in southwest Ontario. And, so this particular cycle of our beloved hummingbirds will come to a close. Enjoy your hummingbirds and keep looking up.
Question: Do I need to continue feeding my backyard birds in the summer?
Answer: There are two schools of thought: Some believe that birds during the summer are able to find enough food and therefore feeding your birds is not necessary. Still others believe maintaining feeders and suet can give the female and her eggs much needed nutrients. Once the eggs hatch, protein can play a significant part in keeping the nestlings healthier & mother stronger. Mortality rates in hatch year birds can be as high as 80%.
Question: Will suet purchased in retail stores go rancid during hot weather?
Answer: Make sure you look at the label prior to purchase. All suet doughs are formulated for summer use and will remain solid & stay viable. Some winter suet will melt with continuous days of heat but still remain edible. All woodpeckers, Black-capped Chickadees & Nuthatches love suet all year-round.
Question: Why am I seeing so many robins this spring?
Answer: American Robins, like many of our local birds have cyclic years referred to as irruptions or invasions . This means that there will be years of abundant food sources and warm weather conditions in cold weather. When this happens, American Robins can have more than one brood in the upcoming spring and summer months. It is not unusual to have two broods and even three broods per robin. Robins are what we call local birds that really do not migrate hundreds of miles but will locate to different areas of within their domain to find food especially when winters are harsh. Trees and shrubs with berries that remain throughout the winter will keep your robins in the neighborhood.
Question: How do I make my own hummingbird juice and should I include red dye?
Answer: 1 to 4 ratio which is one cup of water to 1/4 cup of sugar. Bring mixture to a boil for a minute or two. Place juice in refrigerator then place in feeder when chilled. This can be prepared in advance and kept in the refrigerator for 2 weeks. Large batches can be made in advance. I usually mix 8 cups of water to 2 cups of sugar. We do not recommend using any kind of dye in your hummer juice or purchase hummer food that has a red dye. This can be harmful to your hummingbirds.
Question: Our Ask- A- Birder staff wants to know if our readers are seeing all yellow birds near the forest edge.
Answer: If they have recently arrived with the other spring migrants, they are very likely Yellow Warblers. They vocalize a melodic “sweet, sweet, sweet” and are one of the early arrivals from the south. They build cup shaped nests in bushes and small trees.
Question: We also wonder if anyone is seeing small birds with yellow throats and black masks in reeds and marsh areas.
Answer: These would be Common Yellowthroat Warblers. Gregarious little birds you can see them pop up from tall reeds and cattails to proclaim their territories, ward off rivals and attract the ladies. Their bright yellow throats and black masks are great field marks. The mask has earned them the nick names of “bandit” or “Lone Ranger”. This is a wonderful time of year for birding so go out for a walk and enjoy spring migration.
By Carl A. Pascoe & Rachel A. Powless
We wish to thank The Turtle Island News for sponsoring the 2016 Earth Day festivities on April 22. They graciously bring to-gether educational, envi-ronmental and cultural ex-hibits to Six Nations on the Grand First Nation to raise awareness of the diverse is-sues and share knowledge with the residents of Six Nations and visitors. Ac-cording to Wikipedia Earth Day was first celebrated in 1970 to encourage ecologi-cal education and environ-mental protection. These diverse April 22nd events are now held in more than 140 countries worldwide.
This annual event has helped promote an under-standing that we are all connected and even small things we accomplish can have far reaching impacts. Thanks to the photographs taken by the Apollo astronauts beginning in 1968 which revealed the first views of the entire planet by humans, our perspective has expanded to include the entire globe. See the NASA wed site for the Apollo photographs. These pictures showed there are no national borders and changed our views forever. I believe these photos were a turning point for many of us and helped inspire those who initiated the actions which started Earth Day.
In 1970 Bald Eagles & Peregrine Falcons were on the Endangered Species lists, the Whooping Cranes population was almost gone in the wild, air & water pollution was severely impacting local and global ecosystems and trash filling our landfills was not being recycled. We have made some important progress such as the near recovery of the Bald Eagle & Peregrine Falcon numbers, improvement in the air & water quality in many areas and dynamic recycling programs. The Whooping Cranes are making slow progress but are still on the edge of extinction susceptible to a single catastrophic environmental and/or man-made disaster.
Earth Day is a catalyst each year for us to assess what we have accomplished so far, determine what has been working, what has not produced results, plan strategies to deal with identified problem and look into the future to try and understand the implications of our interventions. We have amassed a staggering amount of data on the causes and effects of changes in local, regional and even global ecosystems. The tremendous leaps in technology since the first Earth Day has progressed far beyond our wildest speculations at that time. The computers used to launch those Apollo missions filled rooms and, to help put the changes in perspective, I have more computing pow-er on my laptop then they had in those rooms full of hardware.Carl with Charle Brown a 3 year old Bald Eagle in rehab due to injury.
Our belief during those early decades of Earth Day was that technology would be able to provide solutions for all of our problems. It turns out that the complexities involved required not just technical intervention but governmental, industrial, local and most important individual commitments to make progress. These human based interventions have ebbed and flowed over the years dictated by the crisis of the moment. This short term and myopic (near sighted) views of our environmental problems has caused the suppression of the development of the long term perspectives required to deal with our issues.
It is a long held belief of many Native Peoples that we must all think and plan 7 generations ahead. Every individual, their actions, their in-actions, interactions with family, friends, neighbors, and communities should take this perspective into account to help make good decisions. Do you need to clear all the trees to build your house or can some be left untouched? How large an area of lawn do you really need with all the fertilizer and maintenance required? Can you leave some areas for native plants especially around the edges of ponds, lakes and rivers to offer a haven for wild-life and as a buffer to help natural filtering of fertilizers before they can run off into the waters? Can you and your neighbors get together to set up naturalized areas along property lines to develop corridors for the safe dispersal of wildlife? Go outside and look around to see how you impact your local ecological system. Be creative and innovative.
Probably the most important technological innovations have been the spread of the internet into a resource of unrestrained information available to almost anyone and the explosion of social media. Unfortunately, the inter-net and social media applications are also the repository of an astonishing amount of misinformation and disinformation requiring those seeking valid data to engage in critical thinking so they determine for themselves the truth of what they are reading and/or hearing.
An unforeseen consequence of this electronic revolution is that it is separating people by substituting media interaction for actual human contact and the exchange of ideas involving face to face communications. This is also causing a profound disconnection from the natural world and an emersion into a “virtual” substitute for reality. The proliferation of the selfie phenomenon is a prime example of the narrow and egocentric version of our place within the greater scheme of things that is pervasive in our society. Does a social media posting of your everyday activities or 130 character limited dissertation of an individual’s opinion regarding some trivia have any impact on our world?
Please do yourself and your children a favor by spending some time out-side with the phones and other media turned off. Look up into the sky at the clouds, observe the birds gracefully performing their aerobatics and try to imagine their view from above. See the trees in all of their majesty and then walk up close looking at the detail of the bark and all of the other organisms’ dependent on this micro ecosystem. Can you relate the insights of the inter-dependency of tree bark’s environment with all of its flora and fauna to those of the bigger picture of your home, yard, neighborhood and community? Try taking a magnifying glass with you to help in discovering all of the small things normally hidden from casual observations. Take photographs of the plants, flowers, birds, animals and insects which surround you which you may have taken for granted. You may discover insights and a greater appreciation of all the things around while increasing your motivation to protect our remarkable planet. We have no other place to live and must protect the Earth.